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Horse Behavioral Notes [WIP]

By Rhorse
Created: 17th December 2020 09:18:45 PM

  1. Table of Contents
  2.  
  3. Horses on herd structure
  4. Horses on socialization
  5. On verbal communication
  6. On horses and touching and grooming
  7. On horse and pleasure
  8. On horses and pain, anxiety, and depression
  9. On horse play
  10. On Horse fighting, warnings, and aggression
  11. On horses and their surroundings
  12.         On sight
  13.         On hearing
  14.         On smell
  15.         On touch
  16. On horse grooming
  17. On sleeping, resting, and stretching
  18. On horse diet and eating
  19. On horses and intoxication
  20. On mating behaviors
  21.         On precopulatory interaction
  22.         On copulation
  23.         On postcopulation
  24. On foaling
  25.         On Foal Maturity
  26.         On Nursing
  27.         On foal interaction
  28.         On foal maturity
  29. On horses on interaction with humans
  30. On abnormal horse behavior
  31.  
  32.  
  33.  
  34. Horses on herd structure:
  35.  
  36. >Horses have a very complex herding system compared to other herding animals.
  37. >The hierarchy is never linear.
  38.                 -A lot of times, there can be whole "love" triangles with horse hierarchy.
  39.                                 -Horse hierarchy is individualistic, rather than as a group.
  40. >Horse hierarchy is very adaptive and can change on a dime.
  41.                 -Horses can't wait around for a new lead horse to step up.
  42.                 -Horses aren't just looking for predators, they're always watching other horses; if there's a hierarchy shift, everyone knows about it.
  43.                 -There isn't a dedicated permanent alpha in the way predators handle hierarchy, rather a lead horse.
  44.                         -Horses need to herd together to lessen the chance of getting picked off by predators and can't afford to branch off to different territories to become dominant like predators do.
  45. >It's unclear if a lead mare is always on top of hierarchy.    
  46.                 -Mares will often lead the herd when moving, but a dominant stallion is often able to "snake" his mares to get them to move.
  47.                         -lowering the head  close to the ground with ears pinned to chase them, to get them moving and away from danger though they will try to push danger away if that isn't enough.
  48.                 -Mares will do this to foals
  49.                 -Dominant stallions will be protective for more mating rights/ protection of his mares within his herd/band.
  50.                 -This doesn't mean all mares are dominant over all stallions in the herd, and vise versa.
  51. >Horses trek by following one after the other in a line
  52. >Higher horses get access to food and water first.
  53.                 -They will guard over spots for feeding and drinking even if they're not hungry.
  54. >A large herd is often made of smaller bands.
  55.                 -Bands meaning smaller mating groups.
  56.  
  57.  
  58.  
  59. Horses on socialization:
  60.  
  61. >Horses have a very big emphasis on pressure and release, as opposed to dominant and submissive behavior of predators.
  62.                 -If a horse moves backs away from you when you put pressure on them, they're being respectful to you as a "higher horse"
  63.                 -Walking away from a horse will create a draw for them to follow you.
  64. >Horses need socialization to keep sane.
  65.                 -They are social prey animals. If they are isolated, they will be stressed out, anxious, and irritable.
  66.                         -A horse that's singled out and alone can lead to abnormal behavioral ticks.
  67.                 -Even two horses is a herd, though the relationship won't be as natural.
  68.                 -If there isn't another horse they'll try to herd up with the next best thing to reduce stress levels. (A goat, sheep, dog, a human ect.)
  69. >Horses will often buddy up with someone somewhat close to their herd/band standing for grooming and general bonding.
  70. >Horses tend to gravitate towards those of the same color, when moving or grazing so they don't stand out when predators come.
  71. >When a horse's head is upright in an alert position it creates pressure.
  72.                 -Useful when letting other horses know there's danger.
  73. >Horses pin ears to tell others to take a step back.
  74.                 -They never pin their ears to show submissiveness like predators do.
  75.                 -It doesn't always mean they're aggressive or angry, they're just saying they need some space.
  76. >stomping counting, or pawing
  77.                 -Can range from a sign of aggression, boredom, or to get your attention.
  78.                 -Best to pair this up with another cue to see what they want.
  79. >Lowered head.
  80.                 -Non-combative, relaxed posture.
  81.                 -Horse blood pressure will naturally decrease when the head is lowered too.
  82.  
  83.  
  84.  
  85. On verbal communication:
  86.  
  87. >Nickering
  88.                 -Low-pitched, gutturally pulsated vocalization.
  89.                 -Akin to a pleasurable groan for a human.
  90.                 -They'll nicker at other horses as a sign of endearment or to call them over.
  91.                 -Mare's will lower their head and nicker much more softly when calling over their foals.
  92. >Snorting
  93.                 -A Forceful quick exhalation of less than 1 second duration.
  94.                 -Associated with olfactory investigation, prancing, posturing, and close combat involving rearing, boxing, kneeling, and circling.
  95.                 -They'll do it when wary about something they're observing or meeting someone for the first time.
  96.                 -Though, like humans, they can do it to clear blockage.
  97. >Whinnying or Neighing.
  98.                 -Loud, prolonged call, typically of 1 to 3 seconds, beginning high pitched and ending lower pitched. The head is elevated and the mouth slightly opened.
  99.                 -Associated with being alert and approaching from a distance, usually between an affiliated pair.
  100.                 -Usually followed by a relatively friendly or relatively friendly or playful interaction as opposed to frank aggressive encounters.
  101.                 -Longer ones could mean they're calling out to someone.
  102.                 -A more shrill whinny means they're anxious.
  103.                 -A louder reverberating one means they're being aggressive.
  104. >Squealing
  105.                 -High-pitched vocalization of variable loudness and typically of less than 1 second. The head can be in a variety of positions, and the mouth is typically closed during the squeal.
  106.                 -Typical during olfactory investigation, posturing, biting, and nipping as well as during both mock and serious fighting.
  107. >Scream
  108.                 -Of similar high pitch as squealing, but louder and longer than the squeal.
  109.                 -Associated with the same situations as squeal, but typically with more serious aggression.
  110. >Grunt
  111.                 -Low-pitched vocalization of about 0.5 seconds. The mouth is closed during the grunt. As with the snort.
  112.                 -The grunt is associated with olfactory investigation, posturing, and close combat involving rearing, boxing, kneeling, and circling.
  113. >Blow
  114.                 -Strong, sharp exhalation.
  115.                 -Communicate alarm to herd mates.
  116. >Groan
  117.                 -Monotone hum-like sound produced during exhalation, typically lasting up to 2 seconds.
  118.                 -Commonly occur during discomfort in recumbent animals, for example during foaling.
  119.                 -Some individuals also normally emit a short groan or sigh upon lying down.
  120. >Sigh:
  121.                 -audible prolonged loud exhalation following quick deep inhalation.
  122.                
  123.        
  124.  
  125. On horse and pleasure:
  126.  
  127. >When horses lower their head, it naturally lowers the heart rate.
  128. >Horse ears tend to drift back when relaxing.
  129. >When getting groomed, or when extremely comfortable horses will wiggle their snouts back and forth if it feels really good.
  130.                 -Sometimes the lower lip will become floppy too.
  131. >Stallions can drop from their sheath when relaxed
  132.  
  133.  
  134.  
  135. On horses and pain, anxiety, and depression:
  136.  
  137. >If the lips press together with a flat chin, it can mean they're in pain.
  138.                 -Usually accompanied by contraction of the upper eyelid and other tense facial features.
  139. >Prancing back and forth in circles helps horses calm down when they're anxious about something.
  140.                 -It probably reassures them that they have paths to run to when in danger.
  141. >A lowered head could mean the horse is in pain if it's constant.
  142. >Can twitch the leg or stomp if something is irritating the leg.
  143. >They will be anxious and possibly depressed when having a leg injury.
  144.                 -Horses love walking and don't like getting left behind or possibly picked off by predators.
  145. >Certaion behaviors can be associated with colic
  146.                 -Behavior associated with gastrointestinal or other abdominal discomfort.
  147.                 -Including hind leg extension, drawing of a hind leg toward abdomen, gazing back at abdomen, recumbency, rolling, getting up and down, groaning.
  148. >Founder
  149.                 -Behavior associated with painful feet, including shifting weight from affected limbs, lifting of affected limbs, and increased recumbency.
  150. >Depression
  151.                 -Lethargic, dull, and quiet manner associated with physical illness, weakness, or severe social stress.
  152. >Head Press    
  153.                 -Pushing face against vertical surface; associated with central nervous system disease
  154. >Teeth Grind
  155.                 -With jaws clenched, moving the jaws back and forth and rubbing the upper and lower teeth.
  156. >Quidding
  157.                 -Dropping grain or partially chewed clump of forage from mouth while eating.
  158.                 -Related to dental problems, mouth pain, or impaired tongue control from bit damage
  159. >Head Shaking, Bobbing, Tossing, Nodding (Stereotypic) Repeated, rhythmic head movements.
  160.                 -Head shaking, bobbing, tossing, and nodding are almost always attributable to physical pain or discomfort (such as allergies, ear parasites, neurologic disorders, dental problems).
  161. >Tongue dragging
  162.                 -Tongue hanging far out of the mouth, usually to the side where it dangles loosely, sometimes moving from one side to the other.
  163.                 -This tongue hanging usually occurs due to pain from a bit
  164.                 -Sometimes they'll do it while resting in stall or pasture.            
  165.  
  166.  
  167.  
  168. On horse fear:
  169.  
  170. >Horses will quickly veer and circle around things that spook them.
  171. >Common facial expressions include showing the whites in their eyes and slightly opening the mouth.
  172. >When the horse is in an alert or stare posture.
  173. >Rigid stance with the neck elevated and the head oriented toward the object or animal of focus. The ears are held stiffly upright and forward, and the nostrils may be slightly dilated.
  174.                 -The whinny vocalization may accompany this stance.
  175.                 -Alert posture may be followed by approach, followed by either friendly or aggressive interactions, or by resumption of the previous activity. described alarm as a stronger form of the alert stance, with eyes widely open and sclera showing.
  176.                 -The behavior may include an arched neck and flared nostrils.
  177.  
  178.  
  179.  
  180. On horse play:
  181.  
  182. >Foal play is 100% non-combative.
  183.                 -Push behavior like ear pinning is socially facilitated behaviors from the mother.
  184.                 -Combative play starts when the horse is of breeding age and largely between young stallions in bachelor herds.
  185. >Foals and yearlings clack their teeth at adults to show they want to play.
  186.                 -Moving the lower jaw up and down in a chewing or suckling motion, usually with the mouth open.
  187.                 -A sucking sound may be made as the tongue is drawn against the roof of the mouth.
  188.                 -Typically, the head and neck are extended, with the ears relaxed and oriented back or laterally.
  189.                 -This behavior is usually performed while approaching the head of another, usually on an angle.
  190.                 -Can also done to relax the foal in stressful situations.
  191.                 -This behavior is seen with other ungulates as well.
  192.                 -This behavior stops when older horses get tired of their shit.
  193. >A good amount of horse play involves investigating things in the environment.
  194.                 -This is so they can differentiate things that they need to run from, and things they can ignore so they can look out for things they need to run from.
  195.                 -Often called "sacking out" which is desensitizing the horse to certain objects, namely sacks and bags.
  196.                 -Horses will often knock unfamiliar objects around and play with it to become comfortable with it. This is why they go ham on yoga balls despite lacking typical chasing predator behavior.
  197.                 -If spooked by a new object, they'll prance back and forth around it in a circular motion, and reach far to poke and nudge it.
  198.                         -Once they're sure it's not dangerous, they'll start playing around with it. Chewing, pushing, swinging it around, and whatever else they can do with it.
  199. >Horses will do either social or solitary play.
  200.                 ->Foals will typically start solitary play a couple hours after birth.
  201. >One important aspect to foal play is learning social dynamics of a herd.
  202.                 -Foals will show off how fast they can run, buck, and move to impress their peers.
  203.                         -you'll often see foals running alongside each other seeing who can go faster.
  204.                         -Foals will also prance around in a circle and rear up when showing off how big and tough they are to their dams.
  205.                 -During rougher play, they'll get nipped, kicked, pushed, and toppled over, usually by their dam. This is where they learn to respect higher horses.
  206.                 -Foals will also start learning to groom others.
  207.                 -Includes sexual behavior like mounting behavior with dams for colts.  
  208. >Horses, especially foals, will generally animate their heads more when being playful.
  209. >Horses aren't adverse to playing with other species.  
  210.  
  211. On manipulative play
  212.  
  213. >Manipulative play involves contact and manipulation of an object.
  214.                 -The target object may be either inanimate or animate
  215.                 -Includes play with other species, such as humans.
  216. >Nibble With jaws closed,
  217.                 -The upper lip is moved upward and downward against an object, typically without dental contact of the object.
  218.                 -One of the first play responses associated with an investigative approach of the object.
  219.                 -In many instances nibbling appears to be a means of moving an object on the ground.
  220. >Sniff/lick/nuzzle
  221.                 -Inhalation with muzzle positioned near the object while inhaling.
  222.                 -The muzzle and lips may contact the object. The tongue is extended through the teeth and border of the mouth, making contact with an object. It is then retracted into the mouth.
  223.                 -Chewing may follow.
  224.                 -When done to an inanimate object may be done to investigate the odor, texture, shape, taste, and size of an object.
  225. >Mouthing and chewing
  226.                 -Taking an object or part of an object into the mouth with upper and lower lips and tongue then placing it between the lips, incisors (front teeth), or molars. The head is usually elevated once the object is in the mouth (see pick up).
  227.                 -The animal may shake the object by tossing the head and neck while the object is being mouthed.
  228.                 -A dam’s mane or tail is a common target of mouthing or chewing.
  229.                 -Side-to-side grinding motion of upper and lower jaw on an object in the mouth.
  230.                 -May include head tossing and/or forward movement of the tongue through the front teeth ending with the object falling out of the mouth.
  231. >Pick up
  232.                 -Holding an object between the lips, front teeth, or molars.
  233.                 -The head is elevated with the object in the mouth so that the object is lifted from the ground. The height at which the object is lifted can vary from a few inches to several feet.
  234. >Shake, carry, drop, or toss.
  235.                 -Following pick up, movement of an object in a side-to-side, up-and-down, rotating, or circular motion.
  236.                 -Or movement forward with the object held in the mouth.
  237.                 -The upper and lower jaws open to release the object (drop), or the nose is thrown upward as the object is released (toss).
  238.                 -A toss may alternately be effected without pick up by using the muzzle to flip an object from the substrate into the air.
  239. >Pull
  240.                 -Holding of an object between the lips or front teeth, followed by a dragging motion of the object with forward-and-back or side-to-side movement.
  241.                 -The head and neck or full body may move in any direction.
  242. >Paw
  243.                 -With an object as an apparent target, one foreleg is lifted off the ground slightly, extended quickly in a forward direction, followed by a backward, toe-dragging movement as if digging.
  244.                 -The movement is typically repeated several times in succession.
  245.                 -The foot may have direct contact with the object, thus moving the object.
  246.                 -Alternatively, the foot may be slightly behind the object, touching the ground.
  247.                 -Investigative sequences and water play typically include pawing.
  248.                 -Pawing an animate object also occurs as an apparent play initiation gesture.
  249. >Kick up
  250.                 -Standing at right angles to a herd mate target (usually the dam), with the butt toward and often touching the abdomen of the target; weight is transferred to the forelegs as the hind legs, in a hopping motion, are raised a few inches off the ground toward the target.
  251.                 -Typically no extension of the hind legs, as in kicking, occurs.
  252. >To and from
  253.                 -Locomotion, usually at a trot or gallop, away from an object, such as the dam or a tree, and then returning to the object at any gait.
  254.                 -This behavioral sequence could also be considered as locomotor play but is classified here as object play because the action so obviously involves a landmark object.
  255. >Circle
  256.                 -Movement in a path, generally circular, around an object so that the beginning and ending points are in the same general vicinity.
  257.                 -This behavior can be performed at any gait and may be repeated;
  258.                 -can include stopping briefly and reversing direction of the circle.
  259.                 -May also be classified as a locomotor behavior but included here with object play because of the distinct focus on an object.
  260. >Resting Rear
  261.                 -One participant raises its chest and forelegs so that one or both limbs rest across the body of a herd mate, typically with lateral orientation.
  262.                 -The animal rearing may rotate around the partner’s body so that the animals end up in the mounting position as for play sexual behavior.
  263. >Jump
  264.                 -Propulsion off the ground with fore and hind legs over an object, away from an object, or toward an object.
  265.                 -Also may be classified as locomotor play.
  266.                
  267. On locomotor play
  268.  
  269. >Involves any play behavior that is performed while in motion at any gait.
  270. >May take off from a stationary position to an instantaneous galloping.
  271. >With no destination threat to, the foal may gallop in a spontaneous burst of motion.
  272. >Foals will run alongside eachother with apparent effort to race them.
  273.                 -The animal often attempts to bump the pursued play partner while chasing.
  274. >Play chasing can occur as what appears to be simple locomotor “games”
  275.                 -Chasing, particularly in play among bachelors, can also appear to be herding similar to that of a harem stallion herding and driving his mares.
  276.                 -Older horses may play “tag” or can occur within the context of play fighting.
  277. >Interrupting an epsidoe of running, Fforelegs and hind legs simultaneously propelled off the ground along with apparently exuberant, random bucking, head shaking,
  278.                 -With the head and neck lowered and the weight shifted to the forelegs, both hind legs lift off the ground with simultaneous backward extension, often repeatedly in rapid succession.
  279. >Foal may spontaneously leap or bound with mostly hind-leg propulsion, sudden movement forward with the forelegs leaving the ground first.
  280. >Walk or trot forward with neck arched, ears forward, tail elevated, and knee action exaggerated.
  281.                 -The head and neck may bob up and down while in motion and a snorting sound may be emitted with each stride.
  282. >In play groups, one or more playmates attaining a position at peak of small mounds.
  283.                 -Individuals may alternate periods of holding the top position.
  284.  
  285.  
  286. On sexual play
  287.  
  288. >Sexual play
  289.                 -Conspicuous and frequent in foals and young adolescents of both sexes and among young and adult bachelor stallions.
  290.                 -The elements of the precopulatory and copulatory sequences may be out of order or exaggerated from that of a mature adult in a breeding context.
  291. >Tease Sniffing, licking, and/or nuzzling another’s head, shoulder, abdomen, flank, inguinal area, tail, and/or genital areas in a similar but more playful manner to that of an adult stallion investigating a mare before copulation.
  292. >Mount
  293.                 -Raising of the chest and forelegs onto the back of a herd mate (same or opposite sex) as during copulation in mature adults.
  294.                 -The mount may be oriented from the side or rear.
  295.                 -It may occur with or without precopulatory (teasing, elimination marking) or copulatory (thrusting) behavioral elements.
  296.                 -An abbreviated form of the mount may include only resting the chin and head on the hindquarters of the target animal (as if about to mount).
  297. >elimination Marking Sequence
  298.                 -Sequence is often quite similar to adult form except that it may not proceed in the order typical of adult elimination marking sequence
  299.                 -Done by foals and more frequently by yearlings after elimination by a mature horse.
  300.  
  301. On stallion play fighting
  302.  
  303. >Play fighting
  304.                 -involves behavioral elements and sequences similar to serious adult fighting behavior but with more of a sporting character than serious fighting.
  305.                 -In contrast to serious fights, the cohorts appear to alternate offensive and defensive roles, spar on as if to “keep the game going,” and stop short of injury.
  306.                 -Initiation of play fighting has been observed to follow the head threat tossing motion in which the head is rapidly flipped up and down either while the animal is standing still or moving
  307. >Nipping and biting
  308.                 -Take a small piece of hair or flesh between the teeth on the upper torso or crest, before immediately releasing.
  309.                 -The ears are upright and lips may be retracted.
  310.                 -May be done on the legs and rump too
  311. >Neck Grasp
  312.                 -With the jaws open and clamped, holding of the mane and neck of a cohort at the crest and sometimes moving back and forth.
  313.                 -Either on the crest of the neck or hind leg above the hock.
  314. >Neck Wrestle
  315.                 -Sparring with the head and neck, not dissimilar to a head swing in real stallion fights.
  316.                 -This activity may include pushing and slamming with the shoulder against the shoulder or abdomen of the partner.
  317. >Stomping
  318.                 -sharply and firmly striking the ground to emit sound, sometimes repeated in a quick burst.
  319. >Push
  320.                 -Head, neck, shoulders, chest, body, or rump pressed against the play partner in an apparent attempt to displace the other.
  321.                 -Sometimes in alternate roles of pushing and being pushed.
  322. >Rearing
  323.                 -Fore quarters are raised high while the hind legs remain on the ground, resulting in a near-vertical position.
  324. >Wheeling
  325.                 -Usually with ears back and the rump turned toward a herd mate, raising of one leg as if aiming to kick, often simultaneously backing toward the target.
  326. >Kick
  327.                 -Lifting of one hind leg off the ground and extending backward, usually toward the play partner, rarely with sufficient reach or force to touch or cause injury to the recipient.
  328.                 -May be repeated in succession
  329. >Evasive Balk
  330.                 Similar to a balk done in a real fight.
  331. >Evasive Jump
  332.                 -During social locomotor play and play fighting, avoiding of a cohort by propelling the fore, rear, or entire body off the ground away from the offensive gesture.
  333.                 -Play opponents often alternate evading and attacking roles.
  334. >Evasive Spin
  335.                 -During social locomotor play and play fighting, avoiding contact by turning away from the offensive gesture in a quick, sharp motion pivoting around one hind leg.
  336.  
  337.                
  338.  
  339.  
  340. On Horse fighting, warnings, and aggression
  341.  
  342. >Majority of horse fights include threats and retreats
  343. >Pre-fight posturing includes:
  344.                 -Squaring up, ear pinning, neck-bowing, prancing, stomping, olfactory investigation, wheeling, and tail lashing.
  345.                 -The participants may rub and push against one another.
  346.                 -Stallions will approach the other with any of these postures in a straight or curving path.
  347.                 -First close contact of males is typically nose-to-nose.
  348.                 -One stallion may approach another, or two stallions may simultaneously approach each other.
  349. >Head threat is a less intense threat that includes neck-bowing
  350.                 -The ears pinned, neck stretched or extended toward the target stallion, and, often, the lips pursed.
  351.                 -The pointing extension of the head and neck may be interrupted with momentary tossing, rotating head tosses.
  352.                 -The horse will bow it's head lower with more intensity.
  353.                                 -also done to block bites to the forelegs during a fight.
  354. >Stomping is raising and lowering of a foreleg to strike the ground sharply, without the horizontal digging motion of a pawing.
  355.                 -Usually done repeatedly.
  356.                 -It is an auditory warning.
  357. >Olfactory investigation involves sniffing various parts of another stallion’s head and/or body.
  358.                 -This behavior typically begins after stallions have approached one another nose to nose.
  359.                 -After mutually sniffing face to face, typically one stallion works his way caudally along the other’s body length, sniffing any or all of the following: neck, withers, flank, genitals, and tail or perineal.
  360.                 - During the investigation, it is common for one or both stallions to squeal, snort, kick threat, strike threat, or bite threat.
  361. >Parallel Prance
  362.                 -Is moving forward beside one another, shoulder-to-shoulder with arched necks and heads held high and ears forward, typically in a high-stepping, slow-cadenced trot.
  363.                 -Rhythmic snorts may accompany each stride.
  364.                 -Parallel prancing often immediately precedes aggressive encounters.
  365.                 -Stallions often do this, more commonly neighboring harem stallions.
  366. >Lunge Swift
  367.                 -Forward thrust of the body from the rear position or charge from close range.
  368.                 -Usually done when face-to-face
  369.                 -most often displayed concurrently with a bite threat, with ears pinned.
  370.                 -Horses will balk to avoid a lunge
  371.                         -Meaning a halt or reversal of direction with movement of the head and neck in a rapid, sweeping, dorsolateral motion away while the hind legs remain stationary.
  372.                                         -The forelegs may simultaneously lift off the ground.
  373. >Head Bump or head swing
  374.                 -A rapid lateral toss of the head that forcefully contacts the head and neck of another stallion.
  375.                 -Usually the eyes remain closed and the ears forward.
  376. >Pushing, shoving, or bumping includes
  377.                 -Pressing of the head, neck, shoulder, chest, body, or rump against another
  378.                 -This is to displace or pin the target against an object.
  379. >Bite Threat
  380.                 -The neck is stretched and ears pinned back as the head gestures toward the target.
  381.                 -Mouth may be slightly open.
  382.                 -If the horse snaps at the other, the miss will be deliberate.
  383.                 -Bite threats are typically directed toward the target animal’s head, shoulder, chest, or legs.
  384.                 -May be performed during an aggressive forward movement such as a lunge, or toward the hind end of an opponent being chased or herded.
  385. >Biting
  386.                 -Primary forceful contact of horses.
  387.                 -Opening and rapid closing of the jaws with the teeth grasping the flesh of another.
  388.                 -Biting is often done at the opponents knees to impair the horse's ability to fight.
  389.                 -If Stallions end up circling each other, head-to-tail they will bite at each others usually biting flanks, scrotum, rump, and/or hind legs.
  390.                                 -With prolonged circling, the stallions may progress lower to the ground until they reach a kneeling position or sternal recumbency, where they typically continue to bite or nip one another.
  391. >Strike Threat
  392.                 -A strike motion that appears deliberately abbreviated or gestured so as to miss contacting the opponent.
  393.                 -Accompanied by a loud squeal or snort.
  394. >Strike
  395.                 -One or both forelegs rapidly extend forward, while the hind legs remain in place.
  396.                 -The strike is typically associated with arched neck threat and posturing.
  397.                 -A stallion may also strike when rearing.
  398.                 -Like a strike thread, is often accompanied by a squeal or snort.
  399. >Horses will turn/wheel their butts towards others as a big sign of aggression.
  400. >As a step up from that, they'll kick threat.
  401.                 -The tail may lash in accompaniment and/ or he may vocalize a harsh squeal.
  402.                 -This action is often indistinguishable from the preparation for an actual kick.
  403.                 -Helps to maintain distance.
  404.                 -Kick One or both hind legs lift off the ground and rapidly extend backward toward another stallion, with apparent intent to make contact. The forelegs support the weight of the body and the neck is often lowered.
  405.                 -It is common for two stallions to simultaneously kick at each other’s hindquarters, often associated with pushing each other’s hindquarters.
  406. >Bucking
  407.                 -The other horse can stand closer to minimize the snapping whip-like strike of the buck and reduce damage.
  408.                 -Otherwise horses will usually be very good about distancing and staying out of strike range.
  409.                 -Horses can kick to the side of them.
  410. >Kneeling
  411.                 -Dropping to one or both knees, by one or both combatants in a close fight, or circling with mutual biting or nipping repeatedly at the knees (front and back), head, and shoulders.
  412.                 -Protects the forelegs from bites by the opponent.
  413. >Neck Wrestling
  414.                 -Sparring with the head and neck.
  415.                 -One or both partners may remain standing, drop to one or both knees, or raise the forelegs during a bout.
  416. >Rearing up
  417.                 -Lifting of the forelegs into the air, supporting the body on the hind legs only, resulting in a near-vertical position.
  418.                 -In a fight, usually done to avoid bites to the legs and knee.
  419.                 -They may attempt to bite one another on the head and neck.
  420.                 -May start boxing, striking with the forelegs.
  421.                         -Usually in an alternating pattern.
  422.                 -If the legs interlock, it's called dancing.
  423.                         -shuffling the hind legs, while biting or threatening to bite one another’s neck and head.
  424.                 -Pre-fight it's done to show how big, strong, and how easy it is for them to balance.
  425.                         -A standing human can get seen in the same light if the human is tense.
  426. >Chasing and getting the other horse to move.
  427.                 -It is still fight, not flight.
  428.                 -Pursuit of another stallion, usually at a gallop in an apparent attempt to overtake, direct the movement of, or catch up with the pursued stallion.
  429.                 -The pursuing stallion typically pins the ears, exposes the teeth, and bites at the pursued stallion’s rump and tail.
  430.                 -The stallion being chased may kick out defensively with both hind legs. Chasing is usually a part of fight sequences.
  431.                 -Sometimes they'll make them move back and forth by getting into their "drive line,"
  432.                 -Meaning creating pressure on the area between the shoulders and withers.
  433. >Stallions might roll their eyes when fighting.
  434. >Horses don't stamp their opponent or attack excessively out of malice.
  435.                 -Again, stamping for a horse is more of an auditory warning.
  436.                 -Once the higher horse makes the lower horse move in a chase and that's the end of the fight.
  437.                 -Sometimes kicks can maim or kill horses, though those are by accident rather than design.
  438.             -More often than not, this occurs when the other horse doesn't have space to move.
  439. >Elimination marking sequence
  440.                 -A behavioral sequence occurring in association with defecation and fecal piles.
  441.                 -There appears to be a communication or competition aspect in this activity.
  442.                 -25% of all antagonistic stallion-stallion interactions take place at fecal piles.
  443.                 -Two or more stallions may participate, either simultaneously or in succession.
  444.                 -These interactive sequences typically terminate with fighting, one stallion pushing the other away, or with calm separation as both stallions walk away from the pile.
  445.                         -Approach fecal pile > Sniff pile > Flehmen > Paw pile > Step forward over pile or pivot around pile > Defecate on top of pile > Step backward or pivot over to sniff pile > May repeat all or part of sequence
  446.  
  447.  
  448. On horses and their surroundings:
  449.  
  450. >A horse will reflectively buck at something if they get touched by something they can't see, smell, or hear.
  451.                 -A useful reflex when most ambush predators attack from the flank.
  452. >horses have a great mental map.
  453.                 -Useful for getting away from danger or noticing something out of the ordinary.
  454. >Horses are very curious and investigative animals.
  455.                 -When they see new stimuli, they'll investigate it until they know it's safe and it becomes familiar.
  456. >They'll go through many postures and generally like to get the smell, touch, and taste of something new.
  457.                 -Often starting with standing and smelling at it.
  458. >Sometimes horses will paw and dig at objects they're curious about.
  459.  
  460. On Sight:
  461.  
  462. >Horses have the largest eyes of any land mammal.
  463.                 -The large eyes pick up movement very easily, which is why horses can be uneasy around many moving things i.e. a windy environment.
  464. >They have great binocular and monocular vision that help with looking out for predators.
  465.                 -If they see something odd in their monocular vision, they'll instinctively look at it with their binocular vision, ears perked.
  466.                 -They cannot do both at the same time but instead shift in and out of them, often drifting toward monocular vision when relaxed or grazing.
  467. >When looking with binocular vision, they are able to see pretty well.
  468.                 -They have a 20/30 vision, meaning they need to be 10 feet closer than the average human to see something  clearly.
  469. >Horses take about 30 minutes to adjust their eyes to dark or light while humans might take 2 minutes at most.
  470.                 -They are effectively blind during sunset.
  471.                 -Even walking indoors where light is being let in by windows they find it hard to see, and once adjusted will avoid light from windows.
  472.                 -It's recommended to let your horse's eyes adjust before training them in large indoor areas.
  473. >horses have a cyan colored tapetum lucidum, giving them good night time vision.
  474. >Horses have two cone vision, and can see red and blue as well as we can, but have difficulty in seeing green
  475.                 -In testing they are only able to pick up green when it's on a flat grey background to contrast it
  476. >Horses have a blind spot in front of the forehead.
  477.  
  478. On hearing:
  479.  
  480. >Ears will always trail towards where they're focused on.
  481.                 -Sometimes is accompanied by nostril flaring.
  482.                 -Again, the ears will also drift back when relaxed.
  483. >They reflectively turn their ear towards a sudden noise
  484. >If they are unsure about something they'll stand still and let their ears rotate.
  485.  
  486. On smell:
  487.  
  488. >Flehmen Response
  489.                 -Flehmen Head elevated and neck extended, with the eyes rolled back, the ears rotated to the side, and the upper lip brought up exposing the upper incisors and adjacent gums while drawing air and fluids through the teeth.
  490.                 -The head may roll to one side or from side to side.
  491.                 -This allows smell to reach chemical receptors that are on the roof of the mouth.
  492.                 -Usually done when a stallion smells a mare in heat.
  493.                 -Mares can do it when smelling a newborn foal to memorise the scent.
  494. >Horses don't like smelling strongly, as it attracts predators.
  495.                 -Horses don't like peeing on themselves and will spread their legs and even stand with the wind at their side to minimize it.
  496.                 -Rolling in the dirt also probably helps with this.
  497. >Horses will go up to each other and rub and smell at each other's snout, often called “sharing breath.“
  498.                 -For foals, a mother will do this for a few days straight to memorize the scent.
  499.                 -A stallion will do it to let it know he accepts the foal into his herd.
  500.                 -Horses that groom each other often might also do this.
  501.  
  502. On touch:
  503.  
  504. >Horses are more sensitive to touch than people make them out to be.
  505.                 -People can control a horse through very subtle posture changes through a saddle, and swish their tail or toss their mane if a single fly lands on them.
  506.                 -They can even feel things through keratin on the frogs of their hooves.
  507. >Like humans the parts having to do with senses are even more sensitive.
  508. >Horses don't like to be touched in a way that affects their senses, moving the ears or covering the eyes.
  509. >Has very sensitive whiskers on the snout they use to feel around for things.  
  510.                 -because of close nerve endings at each whisker it's one of the most sensitive parts of a horse and they release a lot of endorphins when rubbed there.
  511.                                 -It doesn't mean every horse likes to be rubbed there, some shy away from it even if it feels good. Some have to warm up to it.
  512.                 -Horses that have their whiskers trimmed are more prone to cuts and other injuries, especially on the face.
  513. >They'll generally bump their snoot or nuzzle at something they're curious about.
  514.                 -Usually accompanied by fudging around with their dexterous lips.
  515.                 -It's the equivalent of a human observing something by grabbing at it all around.
  516. >Horses will stay a bit back and opt for reaching way over by extending their neck when approaching something they don't know.
  517.                 -It could be something on the ground that's unfamiliar to them, or food from someone they don't know.  
  518. >Foals seek general body contact.
  519.                 -Adults will sometimes lean into people they like too.
  520.  
  521.  
  522.  
  523. On horse grooming:
  524.  
  525. >Grooming involves licking, rubbing, and light nipping with the incisors.
  526.                 -They'll also sometimes rub their whole head on someone.
  527. >Autogrooming.
  528.                 -Rubbing, nipping, and licking themselves, or rubbing against a fence or tree.
  529.                 -Hoses can reach their neck and ears with their hoof for autogrooming or scratch their legs with their teeth.
  530.                 -Foals learn to do this early on.
  531.                 -Tail switching, tail swatting, or tail lashing and tossing of the mane is often done to get insects off of them.
  532.                         -Likely why horses evolved manes and long tails to being with.
  533.                         -Includes flexing the chin to the chest, swinging the head to the shoulder.
  534.                         -flexing, jerking, or stamping a leg also helps.
  535. >Horses often participate in allogrooming too, meaning mutual grooming.
  536.                 -For shedding help, parasite control, stress alleviation, and social bonding.
  537.                 -Usually done in a position that's head to shoulder.
  538.                 -Sometimes horses will stand head to tail so that a tail swish from another horse will get flies off of them.
  539.                 -This is why horses will often rub humans back while getting brushed.
  540. >Rolling or dust bathing is a kind of grooming.
  541.                 -Done by getting into sternal recumbency and rotating to sternal and lateral recumbency on it's other side while tucking the legs.
  542.                 -Horses may do this in water too.
  543.                 -Good for getting sweaty caked fur loose so the skin can breathe
  544.                 -Also good for getting oils spread through the fur, making the horse more water resistant.
  545. >Shaking is good for getting dry or getting debris out of fur.
  546.                 -Done by rhythmic twisting of the head, neck, and upper torso.
  547.  
  548.  
  549.  
  550. On sleeping, resting, and stretching:
  551.  
  552. >A horse's leg joints can lock up making it easier for them to keep standing.
  553.                 -The tendons and ligaments as well as check apparatus in forelegs and lateral apparatus in hind legs.
  554.                 -They generally bear weight on 3 legs and might even flex one leg upwards.
  555. >When rest standing:
  556.                 -The head slinks level with the body.
  557.                 -yes are partially or completely closed
  558.                 -Ears turn laterally.
  559.                 -Weight is on 3 legs.
  560.                 -Horses will also stand rest in water or mud, this actually serves to moisturize the hooves, making them better shock absorbers.
  561. >When sleep standing:
  562.                 -The head will dip lower than the height of the back.
  563.                 -Eyes are completely closed
  564.                 -Ears turn laterally.
  565.                 -Weight is on 3 legs.
  566. >Horses only achieve REM sleep when recumbent.
  567.                 -Sternal recumbency is when a horse lays on its belly legs tucked underneath. Head may be lifted slightly
  568.                 -Lateral recumbency is when a horse is laying flat on it's side.
  569.                 -A sleep deprived horse can fall over if they slip into REM while standing.
  570. >They always sleep in group shifts, with some as a look out, or they don't sleep well.
  571. >A horse only needs about 1-3 hours of REM sleep a day, and the rest of the sleep will be in standing "power naps"
  572.                 -Most herbivores don't need much sleep at all, whereas carnivores can need from 8-20 hours.
  573. >Like young humans, young colts and fillies will sleep longer.
  574.                 -Mostly actual REM sleep
  575. >When horses yawn, like humans there is a deep long inhalation, but they'll also move their jaws from side to side.
  576.                 -They may yawn while in recumbent rest.
  577. >Stretching includes rigid extension of forelegs and arching of back and neck.
  578.                 -Done to improve muscle tone and improve circulation.
  579.                 -Often done directly after a rest.
  580. >Sometimes they'll only stretch the neck
  581. >Mares tend to stretch while recumbent after foaling.
  582.                
  583.  
  584. On horse shelter and comfort seeking
  585.                
  586. >Horses will naturally turn their backs to the wind and direction of the rain use other horses and terrain
  587.                 -It fucks with the senses less and reduces heat loss
  588. >Horses huddle when they're alerted to something.
  589.                 -They'll bundle in a group facing all directions, with foals in the middle
  590. >Basking or sunning
  591.                 -They will seek comfort under the sun when it's cold by resting or stand resting in the sunlight
  592. >Horses are extremely adaptable to a wide range of habitat types and conditions.
  593.  
  594.  
  595. On horse diet and eating:
  596.  
  597. >Horses are non-ruminant animals whose ancestors were likely mostly browser animals.
  598.                 -Mon-ruminant meaning having, not having multi-compartmented stomachs.
  599. >Horses are more prone to stomach problems like colic and ulcers.
  600.                 -They don't have a large variance of good bacteria at their disposal like humans and cattle do.
  601.                 -If a horse gets picky about the freshness of it's hay, the owner will usually throw it to cattle
  602.                 -Horses will actively avoid things like clipped grass in favor of fresh sprouts.
  603. >Horses will produce between 20-80 liters of saliva per day.
  604.                 -Saliva contains bicarbonate which buffers and protects amino acids in the highly acidic stomach.
  605.                 -Saliva also contains small amounts of amylase which assist with carbohydrate digestion.
  606. >Because of less bacteria to process food, it's recommended to be careful about the proportion of certain food, especially food high in calories.
  607. >Grazing is good for the mind as is the body.
  608.                 -They release a bunch of stomach acid so frequent large feedings of low nutrient hay is needed to cushion some of that.
  609.                 -Very prone to ulcers when they don't get to.
  610.                 -When a horse is chewing on something it means they're relaxed and more receptive.  
  611.                 -Horses tend to continuously walk while grazing
  612.         -Sometimes they'll work their jaw as if they're chewing even when they're not. It's still a sign of relaxation or processing information.
  613. >Horses do a sweeping motion of their jaw when eating.
  614.                 -The lateral, forward, and backwards motion serves to thoroughly grind and mix saliva with the food.
  615.                 -Can cause sharp edges in the teeth that have to be "floated", filing down the sharp edges to make them flat and better for chewing.
  616. >Horses have over twice as many taste buds as humans.
  617.                 -They can differentiate the taste of subtle mineral content in water as well as plant toxins.
  618. >Horses generally like sweet and salty flavors, and dislike bitter and sour flavors.
  619. >Horses, as well as herbivores in general are more sensitive to the taste of salt.
  620.                 -This is because they can't get sodium from meat like carnivores can.
  621.                 -What's a little salty for a human is very salty to a horse.
  622.                         -Horses still need a lot of salt in their diet due to sweating.
  623.                 -Horses tend to overdo salt when they have access to it, though it's not harmful for them as long as they have water available.
  624. >Horses often show specific facial expressions when they eat things they like and don't like.
  625.                 -When they eat something sweet or a flavor they like, they relax their facial muscles, bob their head, lick their lips, and move their ears forward.
  626.                 -Horses will also use their tongue to clean their teeth and lips, though they can't lick their snout.
  627.                 -When they eat something bitter, or generally something they dislike, they move their head forward, slightly pin their ears, gape their mouths open and stick their tongues out.
  628. >Horses don't take capsaicin well.
  629.                 -They can't correlate the pain with something they just ate.
  630.                         -They will trot around trying to release pressure from the pain.
  631.                 -Humans are one of two animals that actively seek capsaicin.
  632.                 -Things like chili or pepper spray are banned from race tracks because it makes the horse movements faster and sharper.
  633.                 -It's like horse dope.
  634. >Horses get a lot of moisture through grazing and tend to drink infrequently but in large quantities
  635. On horse intoxication:
  636.  
  637. >Like humans, there will generally be a lack of coordination and lack of awareness.
  638.                 -Sometimes the horse can even stumble.
  639. >Stallions will drop further from their sheath.
  640. >Ears will sink backwards in a relaxed position
  641. >Lips will droop or be overly relaxed.
  642. >Eyes will appear sleepy
  643.  
  644.  
  645.  
  646. On mating behaviors:
  647.  
  648. >Heat happens every 19-26 days, while it can last for 2-10 days, 6 days being average.
  649. >Mares typically go through several days of "mood swingy" estrus before being reliably ready for breeding.
  650.                 -If a mare isn't ready, she will display aggressive threats and avoid the stallion.
  651.                 -In the early part of estrus, she may solicit him before rejecting advances again.
  652.                 -Generally, mares in heat are moody and bitchy, and can be unnaturally pushy.
  653.                 -Mares will also backup and try to pin a mate and it can be dangerous if it's a human in a confined area.
  654. >Spring and summer are often on the longer spectrum and more intense
  655. >Signs of heat restlessness, hyperactivity,  irritableness, will choose to rub their ass on something more so over eating or resting
  656. >Older mares are more likely to exhibit signs of heat while young mares will be more subtle
  657.                 -While if there's a stallion or human male around, the older mares may exaggerate the behavior
  658. >Mating behavior sometimes accompanies rolling.
  659. >Stallions belly slap to get off, which may or may not include pelvic trusting generally lasts 3 minutes at 90 minute intervals with cumming being rare
  660.                 -They'll do it while grazing and resting.
  661. >Rump presentation was exhibited by younger, lower-ranking stallions, not unlike a mare in heat to a clearly dominant stallion may happen outside of estrus.
  662.  
  663. On precopulatory interaction
  664.  
  665. >This "Foreplay" is often done to test the mare's readiness, or tolerance level for being mounted.
  666. >Mare's showing readiness will get into a "sawhorse" or stradling squat and flag her tail, before urinating.
  667. >Mare typically uses her binocular vision to look back at the stallion, or human as he approaches for breeding.
  668. >Nipping of the Mare's hindquarters.
  669. >Males will exhibit a flehmen response.
  670. >Chin rest and Chest Bump
  671.                 -Often immediately before mounting, the stallion stands behind the mare with his chest against the hindquarters and his chin resting or pressing along the dorsal midline of the mare.
  672. >Lean
  673.                 -Stallion and mare push against one another.
  674.                 -Typically the stallion pushes with his chest and shoulder and the mare with her shoulder and flank.
  675. >Without an erection, a stallion may partially mount and put his weight on her.
  676.                 -by raising his forelegs and fore body to rest the ventral abdomen and chest upon the hindquarters of the mare, grasping around the body of the mare with the forelegs.
  677.                 -Sometimes includes grasping onto the mane and crest of the mare’s neck with the teeth.
  678. >The horses will generally be close and have synchronized movements and mutual attentiveness.
  679.  
  680. On Copulation
  681.  
  682. >Same as erectionless mounting, the stallion will bear his weight on a mare usually thrusting 7-9 times over a
  683.                 -Usually lasts 9-30 seconds with 7-12 ejaculations, the first few being slightly more viscous than the last.
  684.                 -Stallion will flag his tale during this.
  685.                 -The glans penis tumesces or flare will make sealed contact with the mare's cervix such that semen is deposited directly from the urethral process into the uterus.
  686. >Mares in estrus are typically covered by their stallion many times per day (2-3 times minimum), with intervals between breedings as short as a few minutes.
  687.  
  688. On Postcopulation
  689.  
  690. >Horses might lay down, or collapse after mating, especially the first time around.
  691. >Mares might get into a straddling position again after copulation.
  692.  
  693.  
  694.  
  695. On foaling:
  696.  
  697. >Horses gestation 11-12 months
  698. >Mares favor being isolated during foal birth.
  699.                 -They will hesitate to give birth when human handlers are around
  700.                 -Mares will travel up to 3 miles from herd to foal, younger inexperienced mares tend to not want to go as far
  701. >Mares foal at night typically and 80% of births are done within 12-6 am
  702. >First stage of foal birth.
  703.                 -Mares become restless during the first stage of foaling.
  704.                 -They will not eat, they may walk in circles, look back toward their flank, and switch their tails.
  705.                 -Some mares lie down and stand up repeatedly.
  706.                 -This restless period is usually shorter for older mares. As labor progresses, mares may assume a straddling,
  707.                 -May urinate and dispel flehmen while expelling
  708. >Shortly before the foal is born, the mare may sweat profusely, especially around the flanks.
  709. >The mare may be standing or laying down as contractions begin, but she usually is flat on her side by the time heavy straining is initiated.
  710. >The foal is usually born within 12 to 18 minutes of heavy labor.
  711. >First-foal mares are more likely to have labor that extends over an hour.
  712. >Horses are precocial animals, meaning the young are born fully cognitive and can hear, stand, and open it's eyes right away.
  713.                 -Humans are altricial like other predators and rodents.
  714. >After the foal is born, the mare will continue to lie on her side for another 15 to 20 minutes.
  715.                 -Serves as a period for the blood from the placental tissues to pass into the foal.
  716. >After 15 to 20 minutes the mare will stand and begin to nuzzle and lick.
  717.                 -Referred to as the “critical period”
  718.                 -Typically accompanied by vocalizations and a thorough visual and olfactory
  719.                 -Presumed to clean and stimulate the foal as well as provide bonding cues to the mare.
  720.                 -New-born offspring learn to recognize their dam by her voice.
  721. >The process by which the newborn foal learns to recognize its dam is called imprinting
  722. >The mare and foal tend to remain in close proximity at all times.
  723.                 -Other herbivores or cattle tend to leave their young behind or in play groups.
  724. >Another contrasting characteristic between mares and other livestock is that mares are not typically interested in consuming placental tissues.
  725.                 -Again, the mare is 100% focused on her new foal.
  726. >Sheep and goats tend to place their offspring in play groups while grazing nearby.
  727. >Within the first two hours:
  728.                 -Foals start breathing (within seconds)
  729.                 -Lift their head (within 5 minutes)
  730.                 -Attempt to rise (within 10 minutes)
  731.                 -Actually stand (within 55 minutes)
  732.                 -Vocalize (within 45 minutes)
  733.                 -Defecate meconium (within 30 minutes)
  734.                 -First suckle (within 1 hour)
  735.                 -First walk-run (within 90 minutes)
  736.                 -First nap (within 2 hours)
  737.                 -Afterbirth (Around 2 hours)
  738. >Mares go into postpartum estrus 6-9 days after foaling but it can range from 5-15 days in extreme cases.
  739. >Mares will snake their own foals to teach them to move away from danger after some time.
  740.  
  741. On Nursing
  742. >Most nursings commence with the foal butting or bunting the udder with its head.
  743.                 -This stimulates milk letdown.
  744.                 -Foals will sometimes attempt to nurse or successfully nurse a recumbent dam.
  745. >Mares typically position themselves to facilitate access to the udder.
  746.                 -This may include widening the stance or moving the near hind leg back.
  747. >Foals are likely to feed after a disturbance, separation, rest, or play bout.
  748.  
  749. On foal interaction
  750.  
  751. >Crossing the bow
  752.                 -When a foal circles around a moving mare and steps perpendicular to her under the neck
  753.                 -This appears to stop the mare’s forward movement and elicit her facilitation of the foal’s nursing.
  754. >As mare moves, foal moves along at similar or faster gait, maintaining proximity that varies with age.
  755.                 -Foals reportedly maintain proximity of 1 meter or less for 85% and 5 meters or less for 94% to 99% of time during first week of life
  756.                 -While mares will sometimes follow the foal, the majority of following is done by the foal.
  757. >Tending a foal
  758.                 -Maintaining close proximity and attention to the neonatal foal, usually by the mare and/or harem stallion.
  759. >A sire are more willing to play with his foals, rather than the dam.
  760.                         -More commonly, when the foal is a little older or of yearling age.
  761.                         -Though a stallion may play with younger foals too.
  762. >Parental protection of foal
  763.                 -Guarding of the foal by either the dam or harem stallion, threatening or driving off herd mates or intruders.
  764.  
  765. On foal maturity
  766. >As foals grow older, the frequency and duration of the suckling sessions decreases.
  767.                 -Probably because they become more adept at suckling and less dependent on the mare.
  768. >Foals will stay close to the mare in the first weeks of life, but will gradually begin exploring and developing social groups.
  769. >By the end of the third month, they will spend approximately 60% of their time with others.
  770. >They will also start consuming feed or pasture at an early age, as early as two weeks.
  771. >By the time they are three to four months of age, they may be obtaining as much as 50% of their nutrient intake from sources other than their dam.
  772. >By five to seven months, over 75% of their nutrients may come from non-milk sources.
  773.                 -This is one of the reasons that it is generally recommended that foals be weaned at about six to seven months of age.
  774. >Coprophagy
  775.                 -Ingest feces by using lips and tongue to draw feces into the mouth, chew, and swallow.
  776.                 -Normal developmental behavior of foals beginning as early as first week and continuing for a few months, with greatest frequency during first two months.
  777.  
  778.  
  779. On horses on interaction with humans:
  780.  
  781. >Horses always see humans as predators due to body language and other factors.
  782.                 -Domesticated horses still see humans as such but as an unaggressive predator.
  783.                 -When humans act aggressive, this can change and initiate a fight or flight response from a horse.
  784. >Humans can have a place in the hierarchy of a herd, and higher horses will try to push one around if a human lets them.
  785. >Walking up to someone head on and reaching out to them is something that predators do and creates a lot of pressure.
  786.                 -Approaching from a side angle will make the horse less likely to step back reflectively.
  787.                 -Walking away from a herd will create a draw and pull others toward you.
  788. >Patting, grabbing, playfully shoving, petting is more predator behavior.
  789.                 -Predators do this to establish dominance through touch, while still enjoying it.
  790.                 -Horses can be desensitized to this and will take any interaction available, but it's generally something most horses don't get pleasure from.
  791. >If a horse is uncomfortable around a human, and the human doesn't notice the usual signs, pinning ears, squaring of posture, or swishing of the tail they'll often treat the human as if it were a retarded foal that hasn't learned social dynamics of a herd.
  792.                 -Includes typical foal correction behavior, being nipping and pushing, though it can cause a human to get kicked.
  793.                 -Once the human learns they will stop immediately.
  794.                 -If they view the human as higher, they won't typically do any of these and keep a respectable distance, though this can change if a mare has a foal or if a horse feels cornered.
  795.  
  796.  
  797.  
  798. General Biology notes.
  799. >Hooves
  800.                 -The outer walls are very flexible.
  801.                         -This allows the hooves to be natural shock absorbers.
  802.                         -It also improves blood flow to the hooves when the hooves flex.
  803.                 -While they can feel pressure on the frog and it contains a lot of blood vessels, it's not as sensitive as people thing.
  804. >Manes and Fur
  805.                 -Horse fur is very coarse compared to a human.
  806.                 -Long periods in darkness or longer nights cause the wintercoat to grow in.
  807. >Sweat glands
  808.                 -Horses do sweat, and it comes out foamy.
  809.                         -This is to help it spread and stick over the coat more thoroughly.
  810.                         -this is due to, latherin, a soap like protein.
  811.                                 -It's also found in horse saliva.
  812.                         -Horse sweat content has way more electrolytes than humans.
  813.                                 -This makes it so it takes longer for them to hydrate than humans.
  814.  
  815.  
  816. On abnormal horse behavior
  817.  
  818. >Horses obtain most abnormal behaviors if they're not socialised by a young age and/or are separated from their herd and locked in stalls 24/7.
  819.                 -They need to graze, move, and be around other horses.
  820.                 -Pretty much solitary confinement but worse since they don't sleep nearly as much as humans do.
  821. >Separation anxiety
  822.                 -When separated from herd mates, frantic locomotor behavior.
  823.                 -typically with long, loud whinny vocalizations.
  824.                 -Pacing or frantic running may focus at a gate or the closest fence line separating them from their herd.
  825.                 -Common between mares and foals, or stallions and their mares, but also can be extreme in certain other bonded individuals.
  826. >Cribbing or wind sucking
  827.                 -Unique equine aberrant behavior involving grasping of surface with incisors while arching the neck and drawing a gulp of air into the throat and then expelling it.
  828.                 -Repeated rhythmically in bouts typically lasting from minutes to as long as an hour.
  829.                 -Episodes often occur during and after grain feeding time.
  830. >Lapping
  831.                 -Extraneous moving of the tongue in and out of mouth.
  832.                 -Sometimes occurs in association with polydipsia.
  833. >Non-nutritive sucking
  834.                 -May suck the tongue as a foal would suck a teat, typically with ears back and the neck and head extended level with the body or with the neck down and the head curved upward, typical of a foal reaching for the udder.
  835.                 -More common among early weaned and orphaned, hand-fed foals.
  836.                 -Sucking on own or herd mate’s body as if sucking the dam’s udder.
  837.                 -Common self-targets are abdominal coat, prepuce, penis, hind leg.
  838.                 -Herd mate targets also include ears, tail, and immature udder.
  839. >Pacing
  840.                 -Circling a confined area repeatedly at any gait.
  841. >Weaving or swaying
  842.                 -Abbreviated pacing involving rhythmic, repeated side-to-side shifting of the weight on the forelegs.
  843.                 -The vigor and speed of movement vary among individuals and within or between episodes from slow to frenetic.
  844.                 -The front feet may remain “planted” in position, or in an extreme form, the horse “throws” its fore body from one side to the other of a doorway or narrow stall, sometimes contacting the walls with each motion.
  845.                 -Often begins as pacing, and over time or within an episode the travel shortens to simply throwing weight back and forth from one foreleg to the other.
  846. >Stereotypic Pawing
  847.                 -Repetitive aimless rhythmic dragging of a hoof in the same action as normal pawing.
  848. >Wall or Fence Kicking
  849.                 -Deliberate extension of the hind leg to contact barriers, using one or both hind legs alternately or simultaneously
  850. >Stereotypic Stomping or knocking
  851.                 -Lifting and lowering of a hind leg as if deliberately striking the substrate, using one or both hind legs one at a time.
  852.                 -Caretakers perceive the rhythmic noise produced by stomping, particularly on wooden or metal surfaces, to be the reinforcing goal of the behavior to the horse.
  853. >Self-mutilation
  854.                 -Repeated self-injury by biting, kicking, or lunging into objects.
  855. >Foal rejection
  856.                 -Attack or lack of normal tolerance of the neonate by the dam.
  857.                 -Some are related solely to nursing only and are often related to physical discomfort at the udder.
  858.                 -Fear of the foal, as if it were unrecognized as the offspring, may occur in first-time mothers.
  859.                 -Savage attack usually does not resolve, and the foal must be reared by alternative means, either fostered to a nurse mare or hand-fed.
  860.                 -In confinement a mare’s protective instinct may cause injury to the foal as the dam rushes to intervene between the foal and perceived threats.
  861. >Wood Chewing
  862.                 -Chewing and/or ingesting wooden objects such as fences or stall construction materials.
  863.                 -Woody browse is normal diet for wild horses.
  864.                 -In domestic horses this behavior is believed to be related to a need for roughage in the diet.
  865.                 -Concerns related to chewing and ingesting fences and building materials in domestic horses include digestive problems, property damage, and splinters.
  866.                 -Horses will sometimes chew through a barrier with determination as if intending to escape.
  867. >Ingestion of sand or soil in considerable quantity.
  868.                 -Due to nutritional mineral deficiencies or to attractive contaminants of soil
  869.                 -Health concerns include gastrointestinal disorders
  870. >Coprophagy in Adults Ingestion of feces.
  871.                 -Normal in young foals
  872.                 -Rare in adults where it is attributed to severe nutritional deficiencies, lack of roughage or food.
  873. >Ingestion of small animals
  874.                 -Often due to lack of food in area.
  875. >Trichophagia
  876.                 -Ingestion of hair.
  877. >Polydipsia
  878.                 -Excessive ingestion of water.
  879.                 -Most commonly related to disease.
  880.                 -Behavioral polydipsia usually includes significant playing or or lapping of water instead of drinking.
  881. >Hyperphagia
  882.                 -Aggressively eating feed or hay, sometimes grabbing, gulping, and quickly swallowing large quantities, and/or pulling
  883.                 away quickly from the feed container.
  884.                 -Rapid ingestion without adequate chewing.
  885.                 -May be caused by crowding or threatening herd mates at feeding time, with or without limited or protected feed supply or infrequent highly palatable concentrated meals.
  886. >Food-related Aggression
  887.                 -Aggressive defense of limited food resource from herd mates.
  888.                 -Associated with limited and spatially concentrated food or water resources or highly palatable concentrated meals.
  889.                 -May be aggressive to humans as well.
  890. >Interspecies Sexual Behavior
  891.                 -Sexual interaction with animal of another species. Cows, dogs, llamas, ect.
Horsie Horses Worldbuilding Notes Horse Behavior

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